Pinnacle Medicine & Medical Sciences

(ISSN: 2360-9516)

January 2016, Vol. 3 (1).

© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research Article


Principals of Research Ethics

Eman M. Mortada

Public Health and Preventive Medicine,
Faculty of Medicine,
Zagazig University,

Accepted 2 January, 2016; Available Online 6 January, 2016.


The horizons of medical research has increased greatly during the current decade, motivated by the need to improve health. As medical research involves human participants, research fundamentally needs to be guided by ethical principles to ensure the protection of participants rights, integrity and welfare. In addition, international standards mandate the review of research by Research Ethics Committees. Thus it is a necessity that the researchers should be aware of the ethical, legal and regulatory requirements for research on human subjects in their own countries as well as applicable to international requirements. The inception of ethical guidelines which primarily includes Nuremberg Code (1948), Declaration of Helsinki (1964), Belmont report (1979) and Council for International Organizations for Medical Sciences (CIOMS) can be traced back at the time when Nazis did atrocious human experiments at the time of II World War and Tuskegee syphilis study. Despite the availability of these guidelines violations of the rights of research participants continue to occur in both higher and lower income countries. According to consciences the research ethics are basically guided by four pillars which are regarded as: respect for the individual; beneficence, non-maleficence and justice.

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