Pinnacle Biochemistry Research

June 2015, Vol.2 (1).

© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research Article


Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis And The Effect Of Ethanolic Leaf Extract Of Vernonia amygdalina On Blood Glucose Concentration And Hematological Parameters In Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Albino Rats

Longe Adeteju Olufunmilayo

Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Biochemistry Units),
School of Pure and Applied Sciences,
Lagos State Polytechnic,
Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria.

Accepted 21 May, 2015; Available Online 3 June, 2015


The study was conducted to determine the preliminary phytochemical analysis and the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina on hematological parameters in Alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. The phytochemical constituents of an ethanolic leaf extract of V. amygdalina indicates the presence of secondary metabolites like tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides,. cyanogenic glycosides, anthraquinones, terpenoids, saponin, and polyphenol.. Adult albino rats weighing between 140-170 g were induced intraperitoneally with alloxan. The albino rats were grouped into five groups (five animals per group). Group I rats were not induced with alloxan , Group II animals were diabetic, serves as the negative control and were giving distilled water ad libitum, Group III serves as positive control and was treated with glibenclamide, Group IV and V were treated with 150 and 250 mg/kg body weight of ethanolic leaf extract of V. amygdalina respectively. The extracts were given to the animals orally for 14 days. At the end of the experimental period, the animals from each experimental group were starved for 16 hours and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. The weight of diabetic untreated rats (Group II) were significantly (P<0.005) reduced when compared to other groups. The group of rats given glibenclamide, 150 and 250mg/Kg B.W of V. amygdalina extract showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) of blood sugar level on day 7 and day 14 respectively when compared to the untreated rats. This suggests that the leaf extract possesses anti-diabetic effect (hypoglycaemic effect). The extracts of V. amygdalina significantly increase RBC, HGB, HCT and the WBC value is significantly reduced in the treated group compared to the untreated group. This shows that the extract is not hematotoxic.

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